Unit 4 Organisational Behaviour ATHE Level 7 Assignment Answer UK

Unit 4 Organisational Behaviour ATHE Level 7 Assignment Answer UK

Unit 4 Organisational Behaviour ATHE Level 7 is a multidisciplinary field that combines elements of psychology, sociology, anthropology, and management. It focuses on understanding how individuals, groups, and structures interact within an organization and how these interactions impact overall performance and effectiveness.

Throughout this course, we will examine key theories, concepts, and models that form the foundation of organizational behavior. We will explore topics such as individual and group behavior, motivation, leadership, communication, decision-making, organizational culture, and change management.

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In this segment, we will describe some assignment objectives. These are:

Assignment Objective 1: Understand leadership behaviour theory and practice.

Evaluate different leadership behaviour theories.

There are several different leadership behavior theories that have been proposed over the years. Each theory offers a unique perspective on the behaviors that leaders exhibit and their impact on organizational outcomes. Here, I will evaluate some prominent leadership behavior theories:

  1. Trait Theory: Trait theory suggests that certain inherent traits or characteristics make individuals effective leaders. However, this theory has limitations as it overlooks the importance of situational factors and the development of leadership skills.
  2. Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theories focus on the actions and behaviors of leaders. Two key frameworks within this theory are the Ohio State Studies and the University of Michigan Studies. The Ohio State Studies identified two main dimensions of leadership behavior: initiating structure (task-oriented) and consideration (relationship-oriented). The University of Michigan Studies proposed two styles: employee-centered and job-centered. These theories recognize the importance of leader behavior in influencing employee satisfaction and performance.
  3. Contingency Theory: Contingency theories assert that effective leadership is contingent upon the alignment between the leader’s behavior and the situation. The most well-known contingency theory is the Situational Leadership Theory (SLT), developed by Hersey and Blanchard. SLT suggests that leaders should adapt their leadership style based on the maturity and competence of their followers.
  4. Transformational Leadership: Transformational leadership theory emphasizes the leader’s ability to inspire and motivate followers to achieve exceptional performance. Transformational leaders exhibit behaviors such as articulating a compelling vision, providing intellectual stimulation, and demonstrating individual consideration. This theory has gained significant popularity and is associated with positive outcomes such as increased employee satisfaction and organizational performance.
  5. Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership focuses on the exchange relationship between leaders and followers. Leaders who adopt this style provide rewards and punishments based on the performance of their followers. While transactional leadership can be effective in certain contexts, it may not foster creativity or long-term commitment from employees.
  6. Authentic Leadership: Authentic leadership theory emphasizes the leader’s genuineness, transparency, and ethical behavior. Authentic leaders build trust and credibility through their actions and inspire others to do the same. This theory highlights the importance of self-awareness and integrity in leadership.
  7. Servant Leadership: Servant leadership theory proposes that leaders should prioritize serving the needs of their followers and the larger community. Servant leaders focus on empowering others, fostering teamwork, and promoting the personal growth of their followers.

It’s important to note that each theory has its strengths and limitations, and no single theory can fully capture the complexities of leadership behavior. Effective leadership often involves a combination of different behaviors and the ability to adapt to various situations.

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Analyse theories relating to work relationships and interaction.

Work relationships and interactions are complex and can be analyzed through various theories. Here are some key theories that provide insights into work relationships and interactions:

  1. Social Exchange Theory: This theory posits that individuals engage in relationships and interactions based on the exchange of social and economic resources. In the workplace, employees form relationships and interact based on the perceived benefits they receive from others. Positive interactions, such as cooperation and support, can lead to stronger work relationships.
  2. Equity Theory: Equity theory suggests that individuals strive for fairness and equality in relationships. In the workplace, employees compare their inputs (e.g., effort, skills) and outcomes (e.g., rewards, recognition) to those of their colleagues. If they perceive an inequity, such as an unequal distribution of rewards, it can affect work relationships and interactions. Employees may seek to restore equity by adjusting their inputs or outcomes.
  3. Social Identity Theory: This theory emphasizes the role of social categorization and identity in work relationships. People tend to identify with certain groups (e.g., departments, teams) in the workplace and derive a sense of self-worth from their group membership. Work relationships and interactions can be influenced by in-group favoritism, intergroup conflict, and the need for social identity enhancement.
  4. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory: LMX theory focuses on the relationships between leaders and followers in the workplace. It suggests that leaders develop different levels of exchange relationships with their subordinates. In high-quality leader-member exchanges, characterized by trust, support, and mutual respect, employees experience more positive work relationships and interactions.
  5. Communication Theory: Communication plays a crucial role in work relationships and interactions. Theories such as the Transactional Model of Communication or Social Information Processing Theory explore how information is transmitted, interpreted, and shared between individuals in the workplace. Effective communication can foster positive relationships, while breakdowns in communication can lead to conflicts or misunderstandings.
  6. Organizational Culture Theory: This theory examines the impact of organizational culture on work relationships and interactions. Organizational culture encompasses shared values, beliefs, and norms within an organization. It shapes how employees interact, collaborate, and communicate with one another. A positive and supportive organizational culture can foster healthy work relationships and interactions.
  7. Emotional Intelligence Theory: Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to recognize, understand, and manage one’s own emotions and the emotions of others. This theory suggests that individuals with higher emotional intelligence are more likely to have positive work relationships and interactions. They can navigate conflicts, build rapport, and demonstrate empathy, leading to better communication and collaboration.

It is important to note that these theories are not exhaustive, and different contexts may require additional theories or frameworks to fully analyze work relationships and interactions. Additionally, the application and validity of these theories may vary depending on the specific workplace and individual factors involved.

Assignment Objective 2: Understand how organisational structures and culture impact on the effectiveness of the organisation.

Analyse characteristics of different organisational structures.

Organizational structures define how tasks, responsibilities, and authority are distributed within an organization. There are several types of organizational structures, each with its own characteristics and implications. Let’s analyze some common organizational structures:

  1. Functional Structure:
    • Characteristics: This structure groups employees based on their functional areas or expertise (e.g., marketing, finance, operations). Each department is responsible for its specific tasks.
    • Advantages: Specialization and efficiency in each functional area, clear career paths within departments, and easy coordination within departments.
    • Disadvantages: Silos and limited communication between departments, potential for slow decision-making due to hierarchy, and difficulty in addressing cross-functional issues.
  2. Divisional Structure:
    • Characteristics: Divisions are created based on product lines, geographic regions, or customer segments. Each division has its own functional departments, such as marketing, finance, and operations.
    • Advantages: Flexibility and responsiveness to local market conditions, clear focus on specific products or markets, and effective coordination within divisions.
    • Disadvantages: Duplication of resources and functions across divisions, potential for competition between divisions, and difficulty in achieving economies of scale.
  3. Matrix Structure:
    • Characteristics: This structure combines functional and divisional structures. Employees have dual reporting relationships, where they report to both functional managers and project or product managers.
    • Advantages: Effective coordination between functional and project teams, efficient resource utilization, and enhanced communication across different departments.
    • Disadvantages: Complex reporting relationships and potential for power struggles, decision-making can be slow due to multiple layers of approval, and increased potential for conflicts and ambiguity.
  4. Flat Structure:
    • Characteristics: In a flat structure, there are few hierarchical levels, and decision-making is decentralized. The organization emphasizes collaboration and open communication.
    • Advantages: Quick decision-making and response to changes, increased employee autonomy and empowerment, and improved communication and teamwork.
    • Disadvantages: Potential for role ambiguity and lack of clear career paths, challenges in maintaining control and coordination, and limited specialization and expertise in specific areas.
  5. Network Structure:
    • Characteristics: In a network structure, an organization outsources various functions to external entities and focuses on core competencies. It relies on strategic alliances, partnerships, and outsourcing.
    • Advantages: Flexibility and agility through leveraging external expertise, reduced overhead costs, access to specialized skills and resources, and the ability to scale operations quickly.
    • Disadvantages: Challenges in managing and coordinating multiple external partners, potential loss of control over outsourced functions, and dependency on external entities.

It’s important to note that organizations can have hybrid or customized structures, combining elements from different models to suit their specific needs. The choice of organizational structure depends on factors such as industry, size, culture, and strategic goals.

Explain how the culture of an organisation can impact on the effectiveness of the organisation.

The culture of an organization refers to the shared beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviors, and norms that define how people within the organization interact and work together. It represents the collective identity and character of the organization. The culture of an organization can have a significant impact on its effectiveness in several ways:

  1. Employee Engagement: A positive organizational culture promotes employee engagement and commitment. When employees feel connected to the organization’s values and goals, they are more likely to be motivated and dedicated to their work. This, in turn, improves productivity, job satisfaction, and overall performance.
  2. Communication and Collaboration: A strong organizational culture promotes open communication and collaboration among employees. When there is a culture of trust and respect, employees are more likely to share information, ideas, and feedback, leading to better problem-solving, decision-making, and innovation. Effective communication and collaboration contribute to smoother workflow, reduced conflicts, and improved teamwork.
  3. Adaptability and Change: Organizational culture plays a crucial role in determining how well an organization adapts to change. A culture that values flexibility, learning, and continuous improvement encourages employees to embrace change, take risks, and innovate. In contrast, a rigid or resistant culture can hinder the organization’s ability to adapt to new challenges, technologies, or market conditions.
  4. Customer Focus: The culture of an organization shapes how employees interact with customers or clients. A customer-centric culture emphasizes the importance of meeting customer needs, providing excellent service, and building long-term relationships. When employees are aligned with this culture, they are more likely to go the extra mile to satisfy customers, leading to increased customer loyalty and business success.
  5. Decision-Making and Autonomy: Organizational culture influences decision-making processes and the level of autonomy given to employees. A culture that encourages employee empowerment, autonomy, and decentralized decision-making enables faster responses to issues, encourages innovation, and fosters a sense of ownership. On the other hand, a hierarchical or bureaucratic culture may slow down decision-making and limit employee initiative.
  6. Attracting and Retaining Talent: The culture of an organization can be a significant factor in attracting and retaining top talent. A positive and inclusive culture that values diversity, provides opportunities for growth and development, and supports work-life balance can be highly attractive to potential employees. Moreover, employees who align with the organization’s culture are more likely to stay, reducing turnover and retaining institutional knowledge.

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Assignment Objective 3: Understand how organisations can improve employee effectiveness to respond to business opportunities.

Assess the impact of learning on the effectiveness of employees.

Learning has a significant impact on the effectiveness of employees in various ways. When employees engage in continuous learning and development, they acquire new knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance their job performance and overall effectiveness. Here are several key impacts of learning on employee effectiveness:

  1. Improved job performance: Learning provides employees with the opportunity to acquire new knowledge and skills related to their job roles. They can gain a deeper understanding of their responsibilities, learn new techniques and best practices, and develop expertise in specific areas. As a result, they become more competent in performing their tasks, leading to improved job performance and increased effectiveness.
  2. Increased productivity: Learning initiatives can enhance employees’ efficiency and productivity. As employees gain new skills or knowledge, they become more adept at completing tasks, problem-solving, and decision-making. They can apply innovative approaches and techniques learned through training programs, leading to improved productivity and higher output levels.
  3. Adaptability and flexibility: Learning fosters adaptability and flexibility among employees. In today’s fast-paced and ever-changing business environment, employees need to be able to adapt to new technologies, processes, and market trends. By continuously learning and staying updated, employees become more agile and can easily adapt to changes, making them more effective in their roles.
  4. Enhanced problem-solving and decision-making: Learning encourages employees to think critically, analyze situations, and develop effective problem-solving and decision-making skills. Through training programs or professional development opportunities, employees gain exposure to different scenarios and case studies that challenge their problem-solving abilities. This equips them with the skills to make informed decisions and find creative solutions, leading to better outcomes and increased effectiveness.
  5. Boosted morale and motivation: Learning and development opportunities demonstrate a company’s investment in its employees’ growth and professional development. When employees feel supported and empowered to enhance their skills and knowledge, it boosts their morale and motivation. They become more engaged in their work, committed to their organization’s goals, and strive to perform at their best, ultimately increasing their effectiveness.
  6. Enhanced teamwork and collaboration: Learning initiatives often involve collaborative activities such as workshops, group discussions, or team projects. These experiences promote teamwork and collaboration among employees. By working together and sharing knowledge, employees can leverage each other’s strengths, learn from different perspectives, and collectively find innovative solutions. This collaboration leads to improved teamwork, effective communication, and overall organizational effectiveness.
  7. Improved employee retention and engagement: Providing learning opportunities demonstrates a commitment to employee growth and development, which can positively impact employee retention and engagement. When employees see that their organization invests in their professional development, they are more likely to stay with the company and remain engaged. This continuity and engagement contribute to their long-term effectiveness and performance.

Evaluate how working in teams can improve employee effectiveness.

Working in teams can greatly enhance employee effectiveness in several ways:

  1. Synergy and collaboration: When individuals come together as a team, they can pool their diverse skills, knowledge, and perspectives. This collaboration often leads to synergy, where the combined efforts of the team members result in outcomes that are greater than the sum of individual contributions. By leveraging each other’s strengths and expertise, teams can generate innovative ideas, solve complex problems, and achieve goals more efficiently.
  2. Division of labor and specialization: Working in teams allows for the division of labor, where tasks and responsibilities can be allocated based on individual skills and expertise. This enables team members to focus on specific areas where they excel, leading to increased productivity and efficiency. By specializing in their respective roles, team members can achieve higher quality outcomes and contribute to the overall success of the team.
  3. Enhanced creativity and decision-making: Teamwork fosters a collaborative environment where individuals can freely exchange ideas and provide feedback. This diversity of perspectives stimulates creativity and encourages out-of-the-box thinking. When multiple team members contribute their unique insights, it leads to better decision-making by considering various viewpoints, evaluating different options, and mitigating biases. This collaborative decision-making process often results in more effective and well-rounded solutions.
  4. Support and motivation: Being part of a team provides emotional support and motivation to employees. Team members can share the workload, offer assistance, and provide encouragement during challenging times. This support network helps individuals overcome obstacles, boosts morale, and prevents burnout. When employees feel supported and motivated, they are more likely to perform at their best, leading to improved effectiveness and job satisfaction.
  5. Learning and professional development: Working in teams offers opportunities for continuous learning and professional growth. Interacting with colleagues from diverse backgrounds and skill sets allows individuals to acquire new knowledge, learn from others’ experiences, and develop new skills. Teams often provide a platform for mentoring, coaching, and knowledge sharing, enabling employees to expand their capabilities and increase their effectiveness over time.
  6. Accountability and shared responsibility: Teamwork fosters a sense of accountability and shared responsibility among team members. When individuals are part of a team, they are more likely to feel a sense of ownership and commitment towards the team’s goals. This shared responsibility promotes greater engagement and dedication to achieving desired outcomes. The presence of accountability within a team ensures that each member is actively contributing and fulfilling their obligations, thereby enhancing overall employee effectiveness.

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Assignment Objective 4: Understand how organisations can motivate employees in order to improve their efficiency and effectiveness.

Analyse the benefits and issues with involving employees in organisational decision making.


Involving employees in organizational decision-making can have several benefits, but it also presents certain challenges. Let’s explore both the advantages and issues associated with employee involvement in decision-making processes:

Benefits of involving employees in organizational decision-making:

  1. Increased employee engagement: When employees have a say in decision-making, they feel more engaged and invested in the organization’s success. This can lead to higher job satisfaction, motivation, and productivity.
  2. Enhanced creativity and innovation: Employees bring diverse perspectives and ideas to the table. By involving them in decision-making, organizations can tap into their creativity and problem-solving skills, leading to innovative solutions and improved processes.
  3. Better decision quality: Including employees in decision-making can provide valuable insights and firsthand knowledge about the operational realities of the organization. Their input can help in making more informed and effective decisions, reducing the risk of overlooking critical factors.
  4. Ownership and accountability: When employees participate in decision-making, they develop a sense of ownership and accountability for the outcomes. They are more likely to support and implement decisions since they had a role in shaping them, which can lead to smoother implementation and better results.
  5. Increased trust and morale: Involving employees in decision-making demonstrates trust and respect for their expertise and perspectives. This fosters a positive work environment, builds trust between management and employees, and improves overall morale within the organization.

Issues with involving employees in organizational decision-making:

  1. Time and resource constraints: Involving employees in decision-making processes can be time-consuming and may require additional resources. It can slow down the decision-making process, especially in large organizations with complex hierarchies and numerous stakeholders.
  2. Resistance to change: Not all employees may be receptive to change or comfortable with participating in decision-making. Some may prefer clear instructions and guidance from management, while others may feel overwhelmed or unprepared to contribute effectively.
  3. Lack of expertise and knowledge: While involving employees can bring diverse perspectives, it may also lead to decisions based on limited expertise or incomplete information. In certain situations, decisions may require specialized knowledge or strategic insights that employees may not possess.
  4. Potential conflicts and biases: Involving employees in decision-making can give rise to conflicts of interest or biases. Personal agendas, power dynamics, or groupthink may influence decision outcomes, potentially compromising the quality and fairness of the decision-making process.
  5. Efficiency and organizational alignment: In organizations with a hierarchical structure, involving employees in every decision may lead to inefficiencies and hinder strategic alignment. Certain decisions may require swift action and centralized decision-making to ensure organizational agility.

To maximize the benefits and address the issues, organizations should carefully assess the nature of decisions, involve employees at appropriate levels, provide training and support, establish clear decision-making processes, and foster a culture of collaboration and open communication.

Explain different ways to motivate employees.

Motivating employees is crucial for boosting their performance, engagement, and overall job satisfaction. There are various strategies and techniques you can employ to motivate your employees. Here are some different ways to motivate employees:

  1. Recognize and appreciate achievements: Acknowledge and reward employees’ accomplishments and contributions. Publicly recognizing their efforts, such as through employee appreciation programs or regular team meetings, can boost morale and motivate them to continue performing well.
  2. Provide growth opportunities: Offer professional development and training programs to help employees enhance their skills and advance in their careers. Creating a clear path for growth within the organization gives employees a sense of purpose and motivates them to improve their performance.
  3. Foster a positive work environment: Create a positive and inclusive work culture where employees feel valued, respected, and supported. Encourage open communication, collaboration, and teamwork. A friendly and supportive work environment promotes employee motivation and satisfaction.
  4. Set challenging yet achievable goals: Set clear, specific, and measurable goals for individuals and teams. Goals should be challenging enough to stimulate effort and improvement but not so overwhelming that they become demotivating. Regularly review progress and provide feedback to keep employees on track.
  5. Offer competitive compensation and benefits: Ensure that employees are fairly compensated for their work. Competitive salaries, performance-based bonuses, and comprehensive benefits packages can motivate employees to perform at their best and foster loyalty to the organization.
  6. Encourage autonomy and decision-making: Empower employees by allowing them to make decisions and take ownership of their work. Autonomy gives employees a sense of control and responsibility, leading to increased motivation and job satisfaction.
  7. Promote work-life balance: Support a healthy work-life balance by offering flexible work arrangements, such as remote work options or flexible hours. Encouraging employees to prioritize their well-being and personal life helps prevent burnout and boosts motivation.
  8. Foster a sense of purpose: Help employees connect their work to a larger purpose or mission. Clearly communicate the organization’s goals and how each employee contributes to them. When employees understand the impact of their work, they are more motivated to excel.
  9. Encourage creativity and innovation: Provide opportunities for employees to share their ideas, experiment, and contribute to process improvements or new projects. Encouraging creativity and innovation demonstrates that their opinions are valued and stimulates intrinsic motivation.
  10. Regularly communicate and provide feedback: Maintain open lines of communication with employees. Regularly provide feedback on their performance, highlighting strengths and areas for improvement. Constructive feedback and open dialogue help employees stay engaged and motivated.

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